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改革开放40年我国住房领域发展综述:住有所居 居有所安

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 传统家居卖场转型频现 电商可是唯一出路? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

新型环保建材真的环保吗?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

不过,不管怎么说,2018年对中国许多大型国内电影公司来说都是一个强劲的年份。
日前,斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)教授彼得o库迪斯基于这场荷兰危机共同撰写了一篇文章,围绕“个人经验(而非市场信息)决定乐观、悲观以及信贷的获得与否”这种不那么科学的方法给出了现代经验。
con全部+serve保持+ative→保守的
苹果公司可以推出一款售价2,000元人民币(330美元)的迷你iPhone,这样就能和联想(Lenovo)、华为(Huawei)、中兴(ZTE)和酷派(Coolpad)的旗舰产品相抗衡了。
沪深300指数(CSI 300)包含了沪深两市交易的300支主要A股,其于2016年交易首日下跌7%,根据新推行的市场熔断机制,意味着当日股市交易已结束。
Phil Baty, editor of the rankings, said: "it seems that China's relentless march up the global league tables has stalled, after making major gains in recent years. This new data shows just how hard it is for emerging powers to break into the traditional global elite."
“Obviously, a single year, even if it is a record, cannot tell us much about climate trends,” said Stefan Rahmstorf, head of earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany. “However, the fact that the warmest years on record are 2014, 2010 and 2005 clearly indicates that global warming has not ‘stopped in 1998,’ as some like to falsely claim.”

4. 马克·特纳四重奏(Mark Turner Quartet),《天堂里的车床》(Lathe of Heaven), ECM。这是次中音萨克斯手马克·特纳13年来第一次以领队身份推出专辑,他喜欢同小号手阿维沙伊·科恩(Avishai Cohen)奏出流畅的互动,在后波普规范中发现全新意义。他的作曲中有纯粹的神秘,由乔伊·马丁(Joe Martin)担任贝斯手,马库斯·基尔默(Marcus Gilmore)担任鼓手的节奏组亦是一丝不苟。
白人焦虑推动了今年的西方政治动荡:英国令人震惊地投票决定退出欧盟,美国的唐纳德?J?特朗普(Donald J. Trump)出人意料地获得了共和党的总统提名,挪威、匈牙利、奥地利和希腊的右翼民族主义崛起。
The fruit is placed into the mold when it's young and undeveloped.
Warm greetings and best wishes for the New Year!致以热烈的祝贺和良好的祝福,新年快乐。
Succeeding as an entrepreneur takes hard work and persistence because, unfortunately, there is no business-startup fairy who magically bestows success on small businesses and their owners.

Footnotes

  • 40城出台调控政策120余次 楼市真的要变天?
  • adj. 快的,迅速的

马特达蒙凭借他在《火星救援》中扮演的被困宇航员一角而荣获喜剧类最佳男主角奖项。
Against: It's not yet managing to win top honors from critics' groups.
《ScreamRide》
Stephen Curry scored 37 points to lead the defending NBA champions to their 12th straight win to open the season, a hard-fought 115-110 victory over the Toronto Raptors on Tuesday night.
《南华早报》援引当地公安局李剑敏告诉新华社记者的消息:“整个加工车间里又腥又臭,人进去待一两分钟就受不了。”
n. 有毒物质

长租公寓:共享空间是卖点 盈利模式成生死劫

References

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